zkEVM | Boosting Ethereum’s Scalability

Published : May 05, 2023

zkEVM (Zero Knowledge Ethereum Virtual Machine)

  • Ethereum has grown significantly in popularity in recent years as a platform for blockchain app development. However, its scalability has become more important and challenging than ever. ZkEVM (zero-knowledge Ethereum Virtual Machine) is a scaling technology that emerges as a solution to address the scalability issues of the platform. The technology utilizes proofs and zero-knowledge rollups to increase Ethereum's potential. 

    Zero-Knowledge Ethereum Virtual Machine offers exceptional security that makes it an excellent scaling solution. This zk-rollup provides augmented security by validating transactions without revealing sensitive data.  

    In this blog, let's explore the emergence of zkEVM and evaluate its potential in helping Ethereum overcome its scalability challenges.

    Getting to Know Zero Knowledge Rollups

    Zero-knowledge roll-up is a scaling technique that groups various transactions and rolls them up into a batch. This bundle of transactions is further shown as a single transaction. In this manner, the validation information is not sent to the blockchain; only the transaction summary is.

    The zk-rollup reduces transaction time, which can increase network efficiency. It enables the 

    network to handle numerous transactions at once. Zk-rollups also lower transaction processing costs by distributing them among users.

    Additionally, it is a safe choice that does not reveal sensitive data. It processes transactions off-chain and validates transactions using zero-knowledge proofs. Additionally, it enables validators to remain anonymous while executing a transaction on the network.

    You may also like to explore | Comprehending ZK Rollups | Layer 2 Scaling Solutions

    How do zkEVMs Work?

    A rollup that is EVM-compatible and protected by a ZKP (zero-knowledge proof) is known as a zkEVM. This provides it the security of prior zk-Rollup options that did not offer compatibility with Ethereum's EVM as well as the improved functionality of some Optimistic Rollup solutions that are EVM-compatible. These new zkEVMs cut gas prices and boost Ethereum network throughput while enabling improved Ethereum process functionality (smart contracts and dApps).

    Important zkEVMs components

    You may successfully comprehend how the Ethereum Virtual Machine can be improved using zero-knowledge proofs by using the zkEVM Github resources.

    Zero-knowledge proofs and the Ethereum Virtual Machine are the two parts of zkEVM. In the parts that follow, let's delve more deeply into the definition of zkEVM.


    The central component of the enormous Ethereum dApp ecosystem is the Ethereum Virtual Machine. The Ethereum network's runtime environment makes it possible to execute smart contracts. In zkEVM examples, the Ethereum Virtual Machine stands out as a key feature because it is the machine that all dApps use. 

    Smart contracts written in Solidity and other Ethereum programming languages can be carried out by Ethereum Virtual Machines. Zero-knowledge EVMs are EVM compatible since they don't necessitate significant alterations to the logic for carrying out Ethereum smart contracts.

    Zero Knowledge Technology 

    There have never been any goals for the Ethereum Virtual Machine to provide zero-knowledge support. Therefore, it is a difficult task to construct EVMs that allow zero-knowledge proofs.

    However, research and innovation advances have made it possible to enclose the EVM calculation process in zero-knowledge proofs. In many zkEVM projects, you can find several methods for fusing EVM operations with ZKP computation. 

    Also, Visit | Deep Diving Into zk-SNARK

    Advantages of zkEVM

    The development of ZK-rollup projects that are EVM-compatible will be encouraged by the building of a fully functional zkEVM. They provide the following advantages. 


    Compared to other scaling initiatives, ZK-rollups offer higher security guarantees since they use validity proofs to validate the accuracy of off-chain computation.

    Lower Costs

    Rollups get protection from the Mainnet by broadcasting transaction data to Ethereum as CALL DATA. Optimistic roll-ups and ZK-rollups broadcast Ethereum varying amounts of data. The zkEVM may even forego transaction inputs and publish only final state changes, thus reducing the need for CALL DATA.

    Since a zkEVM has no faults that others do, it can be resolved more quickly and use capital more effectively.

    Faster finality will be advantageous for users who need seamless asset switchings, such as NFT traders, DeFi investors, or arbitrage traders (particularly between L1 and L2).

    You may also like to read | A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding zk-Snark

    zkEVMs from Polygon and zkSync

    The first two zkEMVs to be made available to the general public were launched by zkSync and Polygon just days apart in late March 2023 (on March 24 and 27, respectively).

    The first zkEVM to be made publically accessible, zkSync's solution, dubbed zkSync Era, went live with excessive hoopla. It has been in development since 2019.

    The Polygon zkEVM is open source, and Vitalik Buterin, the inventor of Ethereum, was granted the honor of sending the first transaction once it was made available to the general public.

    Numerous cryptocurrency projects that have stated they want to employ one or both of these zkEVM solutions already exist for both alternatives.

    While both teams have stated that these are early versions and should first be used cautiously, it should be emphasized that these zkEVMs have undergone extensive security testing.

    Over the following years, they might see some developmental growth pains and security updates, similar to the initial iterations of earlier blockchain innovations.

    Also, Check | Exploring Modular Blockchain | Moving Beyond Monolothic


    The principles of zero-knowledge Ethereum virtual machines were covered in the comprehensive guide to zkEVM.

    Blockchain and web3 development can benefit significantly from the zero-knowledge computation.

    At the same time, instances like zkEVM Polygon demonstrate how zero-knowledge EVMs lay the groundwork for superior user interfaces. 

    Faster transaction finality, security, and scalability benefits allow zkEVMs to quickly expand at an astounding rate.

    But it's also critical to recognize the difficulties in creating zkEVMs and how they affect various zkEVM architecture components. 

    If you have a project in mind or want to know how to get started with zkEVM development, you may connect with our skilled blockchain developers.

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